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287. Find the Duplicate Number

Description

Given an array of integers nums containing n + 1 integers where each integer is in the range [1, n] inclusive.

There is only one repeated number in nums, return this repeated number.

 

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,3,4,2,2]
Output: 2

Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,1,3,4,2]
Output: 3

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1]
Output: 1

Example 4:

Input: nums = [1,1,2]
Output: 1

 

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 3 * 104
  • nums.length == n + 1
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= n
  • All the integers in nums appear only once except for precisely one integer which appears two or more times.

 

Follow up:

  • How can we prove that at least one duplicate number must exist in nums?
  • Can you solve the problem without modifying the array nums?
  • Can you solve the problem using only constant, O(1) extra space?
  • Can you solve the problem with runtime complexity less than O(n2)?

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